Such experiments first appeared among rising states in northern…, Genghis Khan rose to supremacy over the Mongol tribes in the steppe in 1206, and within a few years he attempted to conquer northern China. The Mongols' own preference for shamanism showed no signs of change, although Kublai himself converted to Tibetan (Lamaist) Buddhism. The peoples of the Mongol Empire (1206-1368 CE) were nomadic, and... Zhu Yuanzhang, leader of the rebel Red Turbans Movement and future Ming. Little known fact: China was not always ruled by the Chinese. Islam also spread further to the east as merchants crisscrossed Asia. Revolts in the mid-14th century led to the final overthrow of the Yuan in 1368, making it the shortest-lived major dynasty of China. The Song royals were taken prisoner to Kublai’s new capital at Beijing (Daidu). Click card to see definition Dynasty in China set up by the Mongols under the leadership of Kublai Khan, replaced the Song (1279-1368) -change to bureaucracy to the "best of best" get the job; tried to keep Chinese from having any political power The Mongol police force, the tutqaul, was given the task of ensuring roads were kept free from bandits, and western Asians, particularly Muslims, were often given roles in the financial side of government such as finance ministers and tax inspectors. There was a time when it was, in fact, completely controlled by the Mongols. Ultimately, the empress dowager and her young son Emperor Gongzong (r. 1274-5 CE) surrendered along with their capital Lin’an on 28 March 1276 CE. Related Content Etymology: From 元. Yuan (ProperNoun) The imperial dynasty of China from 1279 to 1368. Peasant uprisings rumbled throughout the 14th century CE until one, led by the Red Turban Movement, toppled the Yuan and brought in a new regime, the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 CE). The Yuan Dynasty. Worse, some of the local elites and provincial administrators in southern China were colluding with the bandits, smugglers and even religious leaders to take over entire towns. Mongol Empire Under Kublai Khanby Arienne King (CC BY-NC-SA). Poetry emphasized sanqu (“nondramatic songs”), and vernacular fiction grew in popularity. Zhu was left the most powerful leader in China, and, after taking Beijing, the last Yuan emperor of a unified China, Toghon Temur (r. 1333-1368 CE), fled to Mongolia and the old, now largely abandoned capital Karakorum. Japan was twice invaded (1274 and 1281 CE), but each time staunch resistance and fortuitous storms, the kamikaze or ‘divine winds’, forced a retreat. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Yuan-dynasty. Yuan China was disintegrating from within. Kublai abolished the civil service examinations which would have favoured Chinese officials with their Confucian education (they were reinstated in 1313 CE but Mongols still received advantages). Further, despite the obvious discrimination, southerners kept their classical Chinese culture very much alive through private meetings and the arts, often producing paintings, poetry and plays which conveyed within them subtle protests against the Yuan regime. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. The Yuan (Mongol) Empire (c. 1300), showing the extent reached under Kublai Khan. yuan definition at Chinese.Yabla.com, a free online dictionary with English, Mandarin Chinese, Pinyin, Strokes & Audio. Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. The Yuan Dynasty was preceded by the Song Dynasty from 960 to 1279 and followed by the Ming which lasted from 1368 to 1644. Wiktionary (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition: yuan (Noun) The basic unit of money in China. This was especially so in regard to the west with contacts through Persia and, thanks to missionaries, ambassadors, and travellers like Marco Polo (1254-1324 CE), Europe. 25 Dec 2020. On his return home, Marco wrote of his experiences in his book The Travels of Marco Polo, first circulated c. 1298 CE. Zhu would take the reign name of Hongwu Emperor (meaning ‘abundantly marital’) and the dynasty he founded Ming (meaning ‘bright’ or ‘light’). 1. Kublai never gave up on Japan, though, and continued to send unsuccessful diplomatic missions to persuade the country to join the Chinese tribute system. The Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) saw the consolidation of poetry, painting, and calligraphy into a unified canon of classical Chinese art. Yuan definition is - the basic monetary unit of the People's Republic of China. Beginning with Kublai, Mongol rulers made some superficial attempts to appeal to the… The Yuan rebuilt the Grand Canal and put the roads and postal stations in good order, and their rule coincided with new cultural achievements including the development of the novel as a literary form. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Kublai, then, embarked on a series of campaigns to bring China’s neighbours back to their former position of subservience to the emperor. For the next six decades the Mongols continued to extend their control over the north and then turned their attention to southern China, which they completed conquering with the defeat of the Nan (Southern) Song dynasty in 1279. Mongol suzerainty eventually also stretched throughout most of Asia and eastern Europe, though the Yuan emperors were rarely able to exercise much control over their more distant possessions. The Yuan rulers had not helped themselves by squabbling over power, creating an overblown bureaucracy, and wasting revenue and land resources on a few favoured princes and generals. Cite This Work Yuan dynasty - the imperial dynasty of China from 1279 to 1368. Most importantly of all, they failed to quash numerous rebellions, including that perpetrated by a group known as the Red Turban Movement, an offshoot of the Buddhist White Lotus Movement, led by a peasant called Zhu Yuanzhang (1328-1398 CE). There was also the matter that Mongol rulers legitimised their position through conquest and the distribution of booty to their followers to ensure loyalty and continued service. At least traditional religions were permitted to continue as long as they did not threaten the state, although Buddhism was generally favoured over the traditional Chinese Confucianism. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Yuan dynasty, Wade-Giles romanization Yüan, also called Mongol dynasty, dynasty established by Mongol nomads that ruled portions and eventually all of China from the early 13th century to 1368. Thank you! Ancient History Encyclopedia. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Making himself emperor of China, Kublai gave himself the reign name Shizu and, in 1271 CE, his new dynasty the name ‘Yuan’, meaning either ‘origin’ or ‘centre, main pivot.’ The start date of the Yuan Dynasty is variously put at 1260 CE (Mongke’s campaign), 1271 CE (first official use of the ‘Yuan’ dynasty title), 1276 CE (death of the last Song emperor and fall of the Song capital) or 1279 CE (final extinguishing of Song resistance). The new law code introduced in 1270 CE, however, had only 135 capital crimes, half of those in the code used by the Song. It was the first time that country had been unified since the 9th century CE, not that this was much consolation to the countless dead, robbed and displaced across China. Although the Mongols had ruled territories, which included today's northern China for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style. Cartwright, Mark. Yuan was the first dynasty to make Beijing (called Dadu by the Yuan) its capital, moving it there from Karakorum (now in Mongolia) in 1267. Equipped with an army of over 1,000,000 men, a large naval fleet, and immense wealth, Song China would prove a stubborn opponent to the otherwise invincible Mongol military machine. For this reason, it would take eleven long years for Kublai to pick off his targets one by one and finally batter the Song into submission. (yo͞o-än′, yü-) A Chinese dynasty (1279-1368) established by the Mongolian ruler Kublai Khan with its capital at present-day Beijing. They continued to maintain their separateness from the native population and utilized foreigners, such as the European traveler Marco Polo, to staff the government bureaucracy. Mongol dynasty, Yuan. Groups of loyalists fought on for three more years, installing two more young emperors in the process (Duanzong and Dibing), but the Mongols swept all before them. [3] Merchants were encouraged to use paper money, currency exchanges were better regulated, and more roads, canals (including the Grand Canal connecting southern and northern China), and use of ocean-going ships aided the transport of goods. Later,…. Distrustful of the Chinese, they enlisted the services of many nationalities and employed non-Chinese aliens. The emergence of the Mongol dynasty dates to 1206, when Genghis Khan was able to unify under his leadership all Mongols in the vast steppe lands north of China. "Yuan Dynasty." The Yuan Dynasty was the ethnic-Mongolian dynasty that ruled China from 1279 to 1368 and founded in 1271 by Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan. Genghis began encroaching on the Jin dynasty in northern China in 1211 and finally took the Jin capital of Yanjing (or Daxing; present-day Beijing) in 1215. Yuan definition, a copper coin of the Republic of China, equal to 100 cents; dollar. Books Between c. 1275 and 1292 CE Marco served Kublai Khan, seemingly in the capacity of a roving ambassador/reporter on the more remote parts of the Mongol Empire. Kublai ensured that Mongols always gained an advantage in China by officially classing them as superior in rank to Chinese. Foreign trade flourished under the Yuan dynasty. The traditional six Chinese ministries, in place since the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE), continued as before, but there were Mongol institutions, too, like the Shumi Yuan or Ministry of War. Intermarriage was discouraged. Although many Chinese officials continued to work as before, they were subject to random and secret inspections by Mongol-trusted censors. Yuan dynasty: 1 n the imperial dynasty of China from 1279 to 1368 Synonyms: Mongol dynasty , Yuan Type of: dynasty a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family Updates? Although the Mongols had ruled territories such as today's northern China for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style. It was superseded by the Ming dynasty. Mongol suzerainty eventually also stretched throughout most of Asia and eastern Europe , though the Yuan emperors were rarely able to exercise much control over their more distant possessions. Notice that since Yuan Dynasty as part of Mongol Empire was also an ethnically and religiously diverse country, its clothing was of various kinds, as well. Zhu Yuanzhang’s first major coup had been the capture of Nanjing in 1356 CE. Yuan definition: The yuan is the unit of money that is used in the People's Republic of China. Web. By securing in 1209 the allegiance of the Tangut state of…, The Mongols were ferocious fighters but inept administrators. Yuan: 1 n the imperial dynasty of China from 1279 to 1368 Synonyms: Mongol dynasty , Yuan dynasty Type of: dynasty a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family Yuan Dynasty The Yuan Dynasty was the empire established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan, after he conquered Southern Song dynasties in China. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The next important transformation of steppe life occurred when nomad peoples began to supplement their age-old tribal organization by borrowing Chinese bureaucratic principles for the management of armed forces. It was used in the imperial court until the end of the Yuan Dynasty. Differences in treatment included northern Chinese being taxed by household while southern Chinese had to pay according to the area of land they owned. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Yuan_Dynasty/. There was also an emphasis on stark and simple forms (e.g., bamboo or rocks) and on calligraphy, often with long complementary inscriptions on the paintings themselves. Various earlier traditions were continued, but there was also interest in producing new shapes, decoration, and glazes. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. There were other measures of segregation, too, such as forbidding Chinese to take Mongol names, wear Mongol clothes or learn the Mongol language. Another significance of the Yuan Dynasty was the outstanding achievements in the natural sciences and technology. dynasty - a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family. Ink Painting of Groom & Horseby Metropolitan Museum of Art (Copyright). He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. In the previous ages of the Tang (618–907) and Song (960–1279) dynasties, art had been encouraged by the state. Of more concrete benefit to the Mongols and Chinese than world fame, the Yuan did promote international trade, too. 5. The overland trade to Central Asia, the Middle East, and Persia was primarily dominated by Muslim merchants. Zhu replaced the Red Turban’s traditional policy aim of reinstating the old Song Dynasty with his own personal ambitions to rule and gained wider support by ditching the anti-Confucian policies which had alienated the Chinese educated classes. Cartwright, M. (2019, October 29). Ancient History Encyclopedia. Merchants, not being producers but ‘exchangers,’ had been discriminated against under the Song, and these, too, now benefitted from more favourable tax measures, low-cost loans and the end of sumptuary regulations. Kublai's empire was the first to use paper money as the main currency. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Like Japan, Southeast Asia was attacked in various land and naval campaigns but they also proved an elusive prize with invasions of Vietnam (1281 and 1286 CE), Burma (1277 and 1287 CE), and Java (1292 CE) achieving only limited success but at least gaining regular tribute from the Pagan kingdom in Burma and the Champa and Dai Viet kingdoms of Vietnam. The Yuan Dynasty, ruled by Kublai from 1279, was the first foreign-led dynasty in ancient China. In other parts of Asia, to the west, there was relative peace, the so-called Pax Mongolica, although there was a major rebellion in Tibet in the early 1290s CE, and the other descendants of Genghis Khan, especially the Ogedeids, continued to nibble at China’s western borders. The Troubled Empire: China in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Artisans and craftworkers were given a more elevated status than previously and given tax exemptions. ... Dadu, capital of China during the Yuan Dynasty (1280-1368), modern day Beijing . 1279 CE was the first time that China had been unified since the 9th century CE. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. Due to the open policy implemented by the Yuan rulers, a great many advanced science and technology innovations were introduced to China. by Metropolitan Museum of Art (Copyright). Octagonal Ping vase, blue-and-white porcelain, from Baoding, Yuan (Mongol) dynasty, China. Unlike other rulers of China, the Mongols were never totally Sinicized, which proved to be an important factor in their downfall. Yuan Dynasty Bank Note & Plateby PHGCOM (CC BY-SA). The final consolidation came under Genghis’s grandson Kublai Khan (reigned 1260–94). Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. 3. In 1271, Kublai Khan imposed the name Great Yuan (Chinese: 大元; pinyin: Dà Yuán; Wade–Giles: Ta-Yüan), establishing the Yuan dynasty. Nevertheless, the Mongols as a group, by forging an empire from the Black Sea to the Korean peninsula (even if it was now split into large khanates ruled by Genghis Khan’s descendants) had managed to expose China to a wider world. Detail of a statue of Genghis Khan, near Ulaanbaatar (Ulan Bator), Mongolia. Kublai Khan was particularly interested in re-establishing the Chinese tribute system which had been neglected during the latter part of the Song’s reign. 2. The Yuan Dynasty was established by the Mongols and ruled China from 1271 to 1368 CE. The latter art form, which included puppet theatre as well as live actors, boomed under the Yuan because of its visual appeal and striking stories; the Mongols, unable to speak Chinese, had little time for prose and poetry. Omissions? Trade also brought a greater exchange of ideas and technologies such as Persian expertise in astronomical observations, maps, luxury textile weaving, and irrigation coming to China, and gunpowder weapons, printing, the mariner’s compass, and paper money to the west. The social structure between the Yuan and the Chinese was always contentious, based on an 'us and them' mentality, that played a large role in the brevity of the Yuan Dynasty. The Mongols had already made several major attacks on Song territory, notably during the reigns of Genghis Khan (r. 1206-1227 CE) in 1212-1215 CE and of Mongke Khan (r. 1251-1259 CE) in 1257-1260 CE. Noun. These 10 top facts draw out the highlights. 1) The Yuan Empire was founded by an illiterate nomad named Genghis Khan. I’ll focus on its most common styles here instead. Making himself emperor of China, Kublai gave himself the reign name Shizu and, in 1271 CE, his new dynasty the name ‘Yuan’, meaning either ‘origin’ or ‘centre, main pivot.’ The start date of the Yuan Dynasty is variously put at 1260 CE (Mongke’s campaign), 1271 CE (first official use of the ‘Yuan’ dynasty title), 1276 CE (deathof the last Song emperor and fall of the Song capital) or 1279 CE (final extinguishing of Song resistance). Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. 1. The real power, though, remained in Mongol hands as key administrative positions in the newly created 12 semi-autonomous provinces that China and northern Korea (annexed in 1270 CE) was now divided into largely went to Mongols, especially to members of the very large Mongol imperial bodyguard. The Yuan Dynasty was amazing for its size, humble beginnings, paper money, largest armadas, technology, monumental over-spending, and huge natural disasters. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Rather than being a solely racially-motivated policy, though, Kublai and his successors were most concerned with controlling their subjects, making it easier to identify who was who and ensuring there were no rebellions; Chinese were forbidden to carry weapons and congregate in public, for example. "Yuan Dynasty." In 1268 CE Kublai Khan focussed on finally knocking out the Song Dynasty and establishing himself, as all nomadic leaders before him had dreamed of, as the emperor of China. Against that radical new direction of the native Chinese in pictorial art, there was a conservative revival of Buddhist art (painting and sculpture), which was sponsored by the Mongols as part of their effort to establish authority over the Chinese. Map of Yuan Dynasty Chinaby Arab Hafez (Public Domain). Yuan dynasty, Wade-Giles romanization Yüan, also called Mongol dynasty, dynasty established by Mongol nomads that ruled portions and eventually all of China from the early 13th century to 1368. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc. The Mongols' reign in China was finally ended due to a lethal cocktail of endless infighting amongst their leaders, inept and corrupt government which overspent and overtaxed, floods and famines. Look it up now! Mark is a history writer based in Italy. Nevertheless, the achievements in literature and art of this dynasty were no less than the previous dynasties. While there was peace in the western part of the Mongol Empire, Kublai launched two unsuccessful invasions of Japan and several others elsewhere in South East Asia. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: 元 朝, p Yuán Cháo; Mongolian: Их Юань улс [2]) was the branch of Mongol Borjigin dynasty established by Kublai Khan. Examples of Yuan Dynasty in the following topics: Painting under the Yuan Dynasty. Stability and peace within China brought a certain economic prosperity for some as Kublai and his successors promoted international trade which saw the now-unified country open up to the wider world. he Yuan dynasty was the khanate ruled by the successors of Möngke Khan after the division of the Mongol Empire. There then followed a long line of short-reigning rulers who struggled to balance the competing pro-Chinese and pro-Mongol traditionalists that divided the government at all levels. Of special merit was the first appearance of blue-and-white ware—consisting of white porcelain with blue underglaze—which was to become so popular in later periods and among Western collectors. Etymology: From 元. The Yuan empire was founded by an illiterate nomad named Genghis Khan. The effect of these policies was to create a boom in crafts and trade, especially of silk and fine porcelain, the latter product now being supervised by a specific government agency, paving the way for the later Ming potters to gain worldwide fame of their own. A number of books were ordered by the Emperor using the script and there were several cultural events sponsored by the Emperor that emphasized poetry and painting during this period of time. The four official Yuan ranks, based on perceived loyalty to the Yuan rulers, were: Being a member of one of the above four classes had repercussions for an individual's tax status, their treatment by the judicial system and their eligibility for positions in the state administration (there was a 25% capped quota for southern Chinese, for example). They imported horses, camels, rugs, medicines, and spices. In addition, many southern Chinese, especially the intellectual class, clung on to their traditions, some even refusing to acknowledge the very existence of their Mongol masters and retiring to pursue the arts. The counterpart in the Mongolian language was Dai Ön Ulus, also rendered as Ikh Yuan Üls or Yekhe Yuan Ulus. Finally, on 19 March 1279 CE a great naval battle was won at Yaishan near modern-day Macao; the Mongol conquest of China was complete. By the mid-14th century CE, the Yuan rulers had been beset by a devastating combination of unusually cold winters, famines, plagues, and flooding of the Yellow River which all combined to bring hyper-inflation when the government tried to solve the problems of a damaged infrastructure by printing too much paper money. A great many advanced science and technology sections you would like to print: Corrections being taxed household. The Republic of China, the Yuan dynasty, ruled by the state online dictionary with,! Focus on its most common styles here instead Kublai Khanby Arienne King ( CC )! And another thrown out following a coup the Song royals were taken prisoner to yuan dynasty definition ’ s major. Imperial dynasty of China, showing the extent reached under Kublai Khanby Arienne King CC... To 1368, showing the extent reached under Kublai Khan ( reigned 1260–94 ) sections! 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